HLA class II eplet mismatch load improves prediction of dnDSA development after living donor kidney transplantation

Int J Immunogenet. 2021 Feb;48(1):1-7 doi: 10.1111/iji.12519.

HLA donor-specific antibodies developed de novo after transplant remain a major cause of chronic allograft dysfunction. Our study main purpose was to determine whether HLA MM, assessed traditionally and by HLA total and AbVer eplet mismatch load (EptMM and EpvMM) assessed with HLAMatchMaker, had impact on dnDSA development after living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 96 LDKT between 2008 and 2017 performed in Hospital Santo António. Seven patients developed dnDSA-II and EpvMM and EptMM were greater in dnDSA-II group compared to the no dnDSA-II (18.0 ± 8.7 versus 9.9 ± 7.9, p = .041 and 41.3 ± 18.9 versus 23.1 ± 16.7, p = .018), which is not observed for AgMM (2.29 versus 1.56; p = .09). In a multivariate analysis, we found that preformed DSA (HR = 7.983; p = .023), living unrelated donors (HR = 8.052; p = .024) and retransplantation (HR = 14.393; p = .009) were predictors for dnDSA-II (AUC = 0.801; 0.622-0.981). HLA-II EpvMM (HR = 1.105; p = .028; AUC = 0.856) showed to be a superior predictor of dnDSA-II, when compared to AgMM (HR = 1.740; p = .113; AUC = 0.783), when adjusted for these clinical variables. Graft survival was significantly lower within dnDSA-II patient group (36% versus 88%, p < .001). HLA molecular mismatch analysis is extremely important to minimize risk for HLA-II dnDSA development improving outcome and increasing chance of retransplant lowering allosensitization.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case Series / Case Control / Cohort
KEYWORDS: HLA; Immunology; antibodies; histocompatibility; immune response; matching; medicine; transplantation
MESH HEADINGS: Adult; Algorithms; Antibody Specificity; Epitopes; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Graft Rejection; HLA Antigens; HLA-D Antigens; Histocompatibility; Histocompatibility Testing; Humans; Immunosuppressive Agents; Isoantibodies; Kidney Transplantation; Living Donors; Male; Middle Aged; Retrospective Studies; Unrelated Donors