Is the level of HLA eplet mismatch a risk factor for graft loss among kidney transplant recipients who have already formed de novo donor specific antibody?

Hum Immunol. 2021 Apr;82(4):240-246 doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2021.02.004.

Eplet mismatches are associated with de novo DSA (dnDSA) and antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) among the general kidney transplant population. However, it is unclear whether the level of eplet mismatch can be used for risk stratification among patients with dnDSA. We performed a retrospective observational study of kidney transplant recipients with dnDSA (n = 44) transplanted between 10/2007 and 5/2014 to evaluate eplet mismatch as a risk factor for ABMR and allograft loss among dnDSA patients. High resolution typing was inferred from by imputation based on ethnicity and NMDP haplotypes, and the eplet mismatch was calculated using the Epvix algorithm. Biopsies (N = 151) from 95.3%(42/44) of patients were reviewed. The mean (SD) eplet mismatch was 69.8(22.8). The ABMR incidence was 71.4% (30/42) and 5 year death censored allograft survival was 67.4% during the mean (SD) follow-up of 5.3 (3.1) years. ABMR and death-censored allograft survival were not correlated with eplet mismatch among dnDSA patients. However, medication adherence and dnDSA MFI < 3000 were associated with reduced ABMR incidence. Among patients with both of these favorable characteristics, only 35.7% (15/42) developed ABMR. In conclusion, the level of eplet mismatch does not correlate with ABMR or allograft loss among high risk kidney transplant patients with dnDSA.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case Series / Case Control / Cohort
KEYWORDS: Chronic antibody mediated rejection; De novo donor specific antibody; Eplet; Kidney transplant
MESH HEADINGS: Adult; Aged; Female; Graft Rejection; HLA Antigens; Histocompatibility; Histocompatibility Testing; Humans; Immunity, Humoral; Isoantibodies; Kidney Transplantation; Male; Middle Aged; Prognosis; Retrospective Studies; Risk; Transplantation, Homologous