Repository for Antibody Incompatible Transplantation Evidence

Assessment of Rapid Optimized 96-well Tray Flow Cytometric Crossmatch (Halifax-FCXM) with Luminex Single Antigen Test

Hum Immunol. 2021 Apr;82(4):302-308 doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2021.02.003.

Flow cytometric crossmatch assay (FCXM) is a sensitive cell-based method for evaluating the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) before transplantation. Recently, 96-well tray FCXM protocol (Halifax FCXM) with improved test efficiency has been introduced. The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of Halifax FCXM by correlating with DSA results based on single antigen bead (SAB) assays (virtual crossmatch, VXM).


A total of 341 FCXMs were evaluated for the detection of HLA-DSA. A positive VXM was defined as having at least one HLA - DSA (HLA-A, B, Cw, DR, DQB1) with ≥ 1000 MFI (mean fluorescence intensity) identified by SAB assay.


Of a total 341 cases, 113 showed class I VXM (+) with class I DSA MFI ≥ 1000 exclusively against one or more donor HLA class I antigens (HLA-A, B, Cw), 72 had class I-/II + DSA, and 156 had VXM(-). Halifax T-FCXM showed a sensitivity of 87.6% (99/113) and a specificity of 98.2% (224/228) for detecting class I VXM (+). The concordance between T-FCXM and class I VXM was 94.7% (323/341). Halifax B-FCXM showed a sensitivity of 58.3% (42/72) and a specificity of 98.7% (154/156) for detecting class I-/II + DSAs. The concordance between B-FCXM and class I-/II + VXM was 86.0% (196/228). When we separately analyzed data, B-FCXM detected HLA-DR (+) (68.8%) and HLA-DQ (+) DSAs (71.0%) similarly (P > 0.05). T-FCXM detected 87.6%, 97.2%, and 98.2% of class I DSA-positive cases with MFI values (sumDSA) ≥ 1000, ≥ 3000, and ≥ 5000, respectively. B-FCXM detected 58.3% of class I-II + DSA -positive (≥1000) cases, but detected 76.7% (33/43) and 89.2% (33/37) of class I-II + DSAs if MFI values of sumDSA and immunodominant DSA (iDSA) were above 5000, respectively. Halifax FCXM had sensitivities of 91.5% and 96.2% for detecting VXM (+) having MFI values above 5000 for class I or class II sumDSA and iDSA, respectively.


Halifax FCXM showed a good correlation, especially with SAB assay-based high MFI DSA or sumDSA. Concurrent application of FCXM with VXM can improve pre-transplant risk assessment and progress organ allocation efficiency.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case Series / Case Control / Cohort
KEYWORDS: Flow cytometry; Virtual crossmatch
MESH HEADINGS: Flow Cytometry; Graft Rejection; HLA Antigens; Histocompatibility Testing; Humans; Isoantibodies; Kidney Transplantation; Liver Transplantation; Retrospective Studies; Sensitivity and Specificity