Patients with preformed antibodies against HLA molecules accumulate on renal transplant waiting lists and have inferior graft survival compared with nonsensitized patients. One hundred patients were included in a program of pretransplant removal of antibodies by plasma exchange (n = 90) or immunoadsorption (n = 10) in addition to prednisolone and cyclophosphamide medication. After plasma exchange, the panel reactivity and the antibody titer were reduced in about half of the patients, and after immunoadsorption the panel reactivity fell in 6 of 10 patients. Of the 83 patients who received grafts, 17 received a graft from a living donor (LD) and 66 received a graft from a cadaver donor (CD). Patients with a positive crossmatch against their LD were included in the program and were thus grafted with a recent positive, current negative crossmatched organ. Fifteen CD graft recipients had a pretreatment positive crossmatch toward their donor. No episodes of hyperacute rejection were seen. One- and 4-year graft survival rates in LD transplants with a recent positive and current negative crossmatch were 77% and 64%, respectively. At 1 and 4 years, graft survival rates were 70% and 57% in pretreated first CD graft recipients (n = 27) and 61% and 47% in pretreated regrafted patients (n = 39), respectively. In this program, a high rate of transplantation among the sensitized patients was achieved. Graft survival was inferior to that seen in nonsensitized patients, but was comparable to graft survival in sensitized patients at other centers.