Repository for Antibody Incompatible Transplantation Evidence
267 results (filtered)
  • Pandey P
  • Kumari S
  • Mandal S
  • Sinha VK
  • Devra AK
  • Singh RK
  • Kumar P
Transpl Immunol. 2022 Oct;74:101656 doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2022.101656.

Advances in immune suppression therapies and desensitization have made possible kidney transplantation regardless of HLA incompatibility. Single antigen bead assay (SAB) is a semi-quantitative estimation of the amount of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies present in the recipient plasma, and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) generated gives this rough estimation of the antibodies present in the recipient. Here we present a case of successful kidney transplantation in a patient who expressed DSA with high MFI. A 33-yr-old male, diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on regular maintenance hemodialysis, opted for second kidney transplant with his sibling as prospective donor and was referred to the department of Transplant Immunology for histocompatibility testing. Patient had HLA incompatibility with multiple DSA identified by SAB. Patient undergone 20 sessions of plasma exchange till discharge and finally till 6 months graft was functioning well. The authors thus conclude that the option of a high-risk HLA incompatible kidney transplant can be offered to recipients with high MFI DSA, who wish to undergo transplantation for end stage renal disease.

  • Jatana SS
  • Zhao H
  • Bow LM
  • Cozzi E
  • Batal I
  • Horak T
  • Amar-Zifkin A
  • Schinstock C
  • Askar M
  • Dadhania DM
  • et al.
Transplantation. 2022 Aug 2; doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000004262.
BACKGROUND:

There is no standard definition for "HLA incompatible" transplants. For the first time, we systematically assessed how HLA incompatibility was defined in contemporary peer-reviewed publications and its prognostic implication to transplant outcomes.

METHODS:

We combined 2 independent searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 2015 to 2019. Content-expert reviewers screened for original research on outcomes of HLA-incompatible transplants (defined as allele or molecular mismatch and solid-phase or cell-based assays). We ascertained the completeness of reporting on a predefined set of variables assessing HLA incompatibility, therapies, and outcomes. Given significant heterogeneity, we conducted narrative synthesis and assessed risk of bias in studies examining the association between death-censored graft failure and HLA incompatibility.

RESULTS:

Of 6656 screened articles, 163 evaluated transplant outcomes by HLA incompatibility. Most articles reported on cytotoxic/flow T-cell crossmatches (n = 98). Molecular genotypes were reported for selected loci at the allele-group level. Sixteen articles reported on epitope compatibility. Pretransplant donor-specific HLA antibodies were often considered (n = 143); yet there was heterogeneity in sample handling, assay procedure, and incomplete reporting on donor-specific HLA antibodies assignment. Induction (n = 129) and maintenance immunosuppression (n = 140) were frequently mentioned but less so rejection treatment (n = 72) and desensitization (n = 70). Studies assessing death-censored graft failure risk by HLA incompatibility were vulnerable to bias in the participant, predictor, and analysis domains.

CONCLUSIONS:

Optimization of transplant outcomes and personalized care depends on accurate HLA compatibility assessment. Reporting on a standard set of variables will help assess generalizability of research, allow knowledge synthesis, and facilitate international collaboration in clinical trials.

  • Bockermann R
  • Järnum S
  • Runström A
  • Lorant T
  • Winstedt L
  • Palmqvist N
  • Kjellman C
Transplantation. 2022 Jul 1;106(7):1485-1496 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000004031.
BACKGROUND:

Imlifidase is an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-specific protease conditionally approved in the EU for desensitization in highly sensitized crossmatch positive kidney transplant patients. Imlifidase efficiently cleaves both heavy chains of IgG in a 2-step process. However, low levels of the intermediate cleavage product, single-cleaved IgG (scIgG), may persist in the circulation. The study objective was to investigate Fc-mediated effector functions of scIgG and its potential impact on common clinical immunologic assays used to assess transplant eligibility.

METHODS:

Imlifidase-generated scIgG, obtained by in vitro cleavage of HLA-sensitized patient serum or selected antibodies, was investigated in different complement- and FcγR-dependent assays and models, including clinical tests used to evaluate HLA-specific antibodies.

RESULTS:

ScIgG had significantly reduced Fc-mediated effector function compared with intact IgG, although some degree of activity in complement- and FcγR-dependent models was still detectable. A preparation of concentrated scIgG generated from a highly HLA-sensitized individual gave rise to a positive signal in the anti-HLA IgG LABScreen, which uses anti-Fc detection, but was entirely negative in the C1qScreen. The same high-concentration HLA-binding scIgG preparation also generated positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity responses against 80%-100% of donor T and B cells, although follow-up titrations demonstrated a much lower intrinsic activity than for intact anti-HLA IgG.

CONCLUSIONS:

ScIgG has a significantly reduced capacity to mediate Fc-dependent effector functions. However, remaining HLA-reactive scIgG in plasma after imlifidase treatment can cause positive assay results equivalent to intact IgG in clinical assays. Therefore, complete IgG cleavage after imlifidase treatment is essential to allow correct decision-making in relation to transplant eligibility.

  • Wojciechowski E
  • Jambon F
  • Cargou M
  • Guidicelli G
  • Merville P
  • Couzi L
  • Taupin JL
  • Visentin J
Transplantation. 2022 Apr 1;106(4):869-878 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003822.
BACKGROUND:

Highly sensitized (HS) anti-HLA patients awaiting kidney transplantation benefit from specific allocation programs. Serological monitoring at 3-mo intervals is recommended to prevent unexpected positive crossmatch (XM), but this strategy is not evidence-based. Therefore, we assessed its relevance when using single-antigen flow bead (SAFB) and screening flow bead (SFB) assays.

METHODS:

We included 166 HS patients awaiting a transplant and assessed their SAFB profile during the year preceding their inclusion. Anti-HLA antibodies were evaluated by SAFB assay and compared within patients as serum pairs at 3, 6, and 9 mo. We assessed the performance of SFB for detecting changes in SAFB profiles with 35 serum pairs.

RESULTS:

On comparing 354, 218, and 107 serum pairs at 3, 6, and 9 mo, respectively, only 0.6%, 0.7%, and 1% of all antigens tested exceeded for the first time the unacceptable antigen threshold (mean fluorescence intensity ≥2000) in the most recent sample. Irrespective of the follow-up period, the calculated panel-reactive antibodies increased by a mean of 1%, and there was no significant increase in the proportion of donors at risk for positivity of flow- or complement-dependent cytotoxicity XM. The SFB did not accurately detect the variations of SAFB profiles.

CONCLUSIONS:

Changes in HS patient profiles are anecdotal and show little association with transplant access or risk for positive XM. Less-frequent monitoring in HS patients should be considered to improve cost-effectiveness without affecting transplant safety.

  • Huang E
  • Maldonado AQ
  • Kjellman C
  • Jordan SC
Am J Transplant. 2022 Mar;22(3):691-697 doi: 10.1111/ajt.16828.

The IgG-degrading enzyme derived from Streptococcus pyogenes (Imlifidase, Hansa Biopharma) is a novel agent that cleaves all four human subclasses of IgG and has therapeutic potential for HLA desensitization in kidney transplantation and antibody-mediated rejection. Data from clinical trials in kidney transplantation demonstrated rapid degradation of anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies facilitating HLA-incompatible transplantation, which led to conditional approval of imlifidase by the European Medicines Agency for desensitization in kidney transplant recipients of a deceased donor with a positive cross match. Important considerations arising from the early experiences with imilfidase on kinetics of donor-specific antibodies after administration, timing of complementary therapeutic monoclonal or polyclonal IgG antibodies, and interference with cross match assays should be recognized as imlifidase emerges as a therapeutic agent for clinical transplantation.

  • Jouve T
  • Laheurte C
  • Noble J
  • Weinhard J
  • Daligault M
  • Renaudin A
  • Naciri Bennani H
  • Masson D
  • Gravelin E
  • Bugnazet M
  • et al.
Am J Transplant. 2022 Jan;22(1):71-84 doi: 10.1111/ajt.16709.

Kidney transplant candidates (KTCs) who are HLA highly sensitized (calculated panel-reactive alloantibodies >95%) have poor access to deceased kidney transplantation. In this single-center prospective study, 13 highly sensitized desensitization-naïve KTCs received IV tocilizumab (8 mg/kg) every 4 weeks. We evaluated tolerability as well as immune responses, that is, T cell, B cell, T follicular helper (Tfh) subsets, blood cytokines (IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor-sIL-6R-, IL-21), blood chemokines (CXCL10, CXCL13), and anti-HLA alloantibodies. Tocilizumab treatment was well-tolerated except in one patient who presented spondylodiscitis, raising a note of caution. Regarding immune parameters, there were no significant changes of percentages of lymphocyte subsets, that is, CD3+ , CD3+ /CD4+ , CD3+ /CD8+ T cells, and NK cells. This was also the case for Tfh cell subsets, B cells, mature B cells, plasma cells, pre-germinal center (GC) B cells, and post-GC B cells, whereas we observed a significant increase in naïve B cells (p = .02) and a significant decrease in plasmablasts (p = .046) over the tocilizumab treatment course. CXCL10, CXCL13, IL-21, total IgG, IgA, and IgM levels did not significantly change during tocilizumab therapy; conversely, there was a significant increase in IL-6 levels (p = .03) and a huge increase in sIL-6R (p = .00004). There was a marginal effect on anti-HLA alloantibodies (class I and class II). To conclude in highly sensitized KTCs, tocilizumab as a monotherapy limited B cell maturation; however, it had almost no effect on anti-HLA alloantibodies.

  • Kjellman C
  • Maldonado AQ
  • Sjöholm K
  • Lonze BE
  • Montgomery RA
  • Runström A
  • Lorant T
  • Desai NM
  • Legendre C
  • Lundgren T
  • et al.
Am J Transplant. 2021 Dec;21(12):3907-3918 doi: 10.1111/ajt.16754.

Imlifidase is a cysteine proteinase which specifically cleaves IgG, inhibiting Fc-mediated effector function within hours of administration. Imlifidase converts a positive crossmatch to a potential donor (T cell, B cell, or both), to negative, enabling transplantation to occur between previously HLA incompatible donor-recipient pairs. To date, 39 crossmatch positive patients received imlifidase prior to a kidney transplant in four single-arm, open-label, phase 2 studies. At 3 years, for patients who were AMR+ compared to AMR-, death-censored allograft survival was 93% vs 77%, patient survival was 85% vs 94%, and mean eGFR was 49 ml/min/1.73 m2 vs 61 ml/min/1.73 m2 , respectively. The incidence of AMR was 38% with most episodes occurring within the first month post-transplantation. Sub-analysis of patients deemed highly sensitized with cPRA ≥ 99.9%, and unlikely to be transplanted who received crossmatch-positive, deceased donor transplants had similar rates of patient survival, graft survival, and eGFR but a higher rate of AMR. These data demonstrate that outcomes and safety up to 3 years in recipients of imlifidase-enabled allografts is comparable to outcomes in other highly sensitized patients undergoing HLA-incompatible transplantation. Thus, imlifidase is a potent option to facilitate transplantation among patients who have a significant immunologic barrier to successful kidney transplantation. Clinical Trial: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02790437), EudraCT Number: 2016-002064-13.

  • Tang C
  • Unterrainer C
  • Fink A
  • Cinca S
  • Ruhenstroth A
  • Scherer S
  • Morath C
  • Zeier M
  • Mehrabi A
  • Süsal C
  • et al.
HLA. 2021 Nov;98(5):423-430 doi: 10.1111/tan.14422.

HLA matching and avoidance of unacceptable mismatches are important aspects in the selection of donors for solid organ transplantation. The impact of HLA-DPB1 incompatibility on the outcomes of kidney transplantation is not fully understood. We investigated a potential effect of mismatching for HLA-DPB1 at allele, eplet, or Terasaki epitope (TerEp) level on the formation of de novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA) and also asked whether polymorphisms associated with HLA-DPB1 expression level may influence dnDSA induction. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlation between graft survival and HLA-DPB1 mismatches defined by different approaches. A cohort of 366 patients who received a kidney transplant at the Heidelberg University Hospital, Germany, with availability of pre- and post-transplant HLA antibody results by single antigen testing as well as of donor and recipient HLA-DPB1 high-resolution typing were analyzed retrospectively. Susceptibility to increased HLA-DPB1 expression was predicted by the linked dimorphism rs9277534 A/G of the HLA-DPB1 gene. Neither HLA-DPB1 mismatches at allele, eplet or TerEp level nor exposure to donor's high HLA-DPB1 expression were significantly associated with the risk of developing dnDSA against HLA-DPB1. However, HLA-DPB1 eplet and TerEp mismatches had a significant negative impact on graft survival (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). Matching for HLA-DPB1 at epitope instead of allele level appears to have potential to improve graft survival in kidney transplantation.

  • Jordan SC
  • Legendre C
  • Desai NM
  • Lorant T
  • Bengtsson M
  • Lonze BE
  • Vo AA
  • Runström A
  • Laxmyr L
  • Sjöholm K
  • et al.
Transplantation. 2021 Aug 1;105(8):1808-1817 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003496.
BACKGROUND:

Highly HLA sensitized patients have limited access to life-saving kidney transplantation because of a paucity of immunologically suitable donors. Imlifidase is a cysteine protease that cleaves IgG leading to a rapid decrease in antibody level and inhibition of IgG-mediated injury. This study investigates the efficacy and safety of imlifidase in converting a positive crossmatch test to negative, allowing highly sensitized patients to be transplanted with a living or deceased donor kidney.

METHODS:

This open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial conducted at 5 transplant centers, evaluated the ability of imlifidase to create a negative crossmatch test within 24 h. Secondary endpoints included postimlifidase donor-specific antibody levels compared with predose levels, renal function, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles. Safety endpoints included adverse events and immunogenicity profile.

RESULTS:

Of the transplanted patients, 89.5% demonstrated conversion of baseline positive crossmatch to negative within 24 h after imlifidase treatment. Donor-specific antibodies most often rebounded 3-14 d postimlifidase dose, with substantial interpatient variability. Patient survival was 100% with graft survival of 88.9% at 6 mo. With this, 38.9% had early biopsy proven antibody-mediated rejection with onset 2-19 d posttransplantation. Serum IgG levels began to normalize after ~3-7 d posttransplantation. Antidrug antibody levels were consistent with previous studies. Seven adverse events in 6 patients were classified as possibly or probably related to treatment and were mild-moderate in severity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Imlifidase was well tolerated, converted positive crossmatches to negative, and enabled patients with a median calculated panel-reactive antibody of 99.83% to undergo kidney transplantation resulting in good kidney function and graft survival at 6 mo.

  • Krishnan N
  • Abimbola A
  • Machan N
  • Daga S
  • Gopalakrishnan K
  • Lam F
  • Tan L
  • Kashi H
  • Imray C
  • Zehnder D
  • et al.
Transplant Direct. 2021 Jul 19;7(8):e732 doi: 10.1097/TXD.0000000000001183.
BACKGROUND:

HLA incompatible renal transplantation still remains one of best therapeutic options for a subgroup of patients who are highly sensitized and difficult to match but not much is known about its long-term graft and patient survival.

METHODS:

One hundred thirty-four HLA incompatible renal transplantation patients from 2003 to 2018 with a median follow of 6.93 y were analyzed retrospectively to estimate patient and graft survivals. Outcomes were compared with groups defined by baseline crossmatch status and the type and timings of rejection episodes.

RESULTS:

The overall patient survival was 95%, 90%, and 81%; and graft survival was 95%, 85%, and 70% at 1, 5, and 10 y, respectively. This was similar to the first-time deceased donor transplant cohort. The graft survival for pretreatment cytotoxic-dependent crossmatch (CDC) positive crossmatch group was significantly low at 83%, 64%, and 40% at 1, 5, and 10 y, respectively, compared with other groups (Bead/CDC, P = 0.007; CDC/Flow, P = 0.001; and microbead assay/flow cytometry crossmatch, P = 0.837), although those with a low CDC titer (<1 in 2) have comparable outcomes to the CDC negative group. Female patients in general fared worse in both patient and graft survival outcomes in each of the 3 groups based on pretreatment crossmatch, although this did not reach statistical significance. Antibody-mediated rejection was the most frequent type of rejection with significant decline in graft survival by 10 y when compared with no rejection (P < 0.001). Rejection that occurred or continued to occur after the first 2 wk of transplantation caused a significant reduction in graft survivals (P < 0.001), whereas good outcomes were seen in those with a single early rejection episode.

CONCLUSIONS:

One-, 5-, and 10-y HLA incompatible graft and patient survival is comparable to deceased donor transplantation and can be further improved by excluding high-CDC titer cases. Antibody-positive female patients show worse long-term survival. Resolution of early rejection is associated with good long-term graft survival.