349 results
349 results
  • Yoo J
  • Lee S
  • Lee HW
  • Lee S
  • Choi J
  • et al.
Hum Immunol. 2021 Apr;82(4):302-308 doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2021.02.003.

Flow cytometric crossmatch assay (FCXM) is a sensitive cell-based method for evaluating the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) before transplantation. Recently, 96-well tray FCXM protocol (Halifax FCXM) with improved test efficiency has been introduced. The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of Halifax FCXM by correlating with DSA results based on single antigen bead (SAB) assays (virtual crossmatch, VXM).


A total of 341 FCXMs were evaluated for the detection of HLA-DSA. A positive VXM was defined as having at least one HLA - DSA (HLA-A, B, Cw, DR, DQB1) with ≥ 1000 MFI (mean fluorescence intensity) identified by SAB assay.


Of a total 341 cases, 113 showed class I VXM (+) with class I DSA MFI ≥ 1000 exclusively against one or more donor HLA class I antigens (HLA-A, B, Cw), 72 had class I-/II + DSA, and 156 had VXM(-). Halifax T-FCXM showed a sensitivity of 87.6% (99/113) and a specificity of 98.2% (224/228) for detecting class I VXM (+). The concordance between T-FCXM and class I VXM was 94.7% (323/341). Halifax B-FCXM showed a sensitivity of 58.3% (42/72) and a specificity of 98.7% (154/156) for detecting class I-/II + DSAs. The concordance between B-FCXM and class I-/II + VXM was 86.0% (196/228). When we separately analyzed data, B-FCXM detected HLA-DR (+) (68.8%) and HLA-DQ (+) DSAs (71.0%) similarly (P > 0.05). T-FCXM detected 87.6%, 97.2%, and 98.2% of class I DSA-positive cases with MFI values (sumDSA) ≥ 1000, ≥ 3000, and ≥ 5000, respectively. B-FCXM detected 58.3% of class I-II + DSA -positive (≥1000) cases, but detected 76.7% (33/43) and 89.2% (33/37) of class I-II + DSAs if MFI values of sumDSA and immunodominant DSA (iDSA) were above 5000, respectively. Halifax FCXM had sensitivities of 91.5% and 96.2% for detecting VXM (+) having MFI values above 5000 for class I or class II sumDSA and iDSA, respectively.


Halifax FCXM showed a good correlation, especially with SAB assay-based high MFI DSA or sumDSA. Concurrent application of FCXM with VXM can improve pre-transplant risk assessment and progress organ allocation efficiency.

  • Wen J
  • Basu A
  • Bentall A
  • Henderson N
  • Dukek B
  • et al.
Hum Immunol. 2021 Apr;82(4):240-246 doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2021.02.004.

Eplet mismatches are associated with de novo DSA (dnDSA) and antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) among the general kidney transplant population. However, it is unclear whether the level of eplet mismatch can be used for risk stratification among patients with dnDSA. We performed a retrospective observational study of kidney transplant recipients with dnDSA (n = 44) transplanted between 10/2007 and 5/2014 to evaluate eplet mismatch as a risk factor for ABMR and allograft loss among dnDSA patients. High resolution typing was inferred from by imputation based on ethnicity and NMDP haplotypes, and the eplet mismatch was calculated using the Epvix algorithm. Biopsies (N = 151) from 95.3%(42/44) of patients were reviewed. The mean (SD) eplet mismatch was 69.8(22.8). The ABMR incidence was 71.4% (30/42) and 5 year death censored allograft survival was 67.4% during the mean (SD) follow-up of 5.3 (3.1) years. ABMR and death-censored allograft survival were not correlated with eplet mismatch among dnDSA patients. However, medication adherence and dnDSA MFI < 3000 were associated with reduced ABMR incidence. Among patients with both of these favorable characteristics, only 35.7% (15/42) developed ABMR. In conclusion, the level of eplet mismatch does not correlate with ABMR or allograft loss among high risk kidney transplant patients with dnDSA.

  • Motter JD
  • Jackson KR
  • Long JJ
  • Waldram MM
  • Orandi BJ
  • et al.
Am J Transplant. 2021 Apr;21(4):1612-1621 doi: 10.1111/ajt.16471.

Incompatible living donor kidney transplant recipients (ILDKTr) have pre-existing donor-specific antibody (DSA) that, despite desensitization, may persist or reappear with resulting consequences, including delayed graft function (DGF) and acute rejection (AR). To quantify the risk of DGF and AR in ILDKT and downstream effects, we compared 1406 ILDKTr to 17 542 compatible LDKT recipients (CLDKTr) using a 25-center cohort with novel SRTR linkage. We characterized DSA strength as positive Luminex, negative flow crossmatch (PLNF); positive flow, negative cytotoxic crossmatch (PFNC); or positive cytotoxic crossmatch (PCC). DGF occurred in 3.1% of CLDKT, 3.5% of PLNF, 5.7% of PFNC, and 7.6% of PCC recipients, which translated to higher DGF for PCC recipients (aOR = 1.03 1.682.72 ). However, the impact of DGF on mortality and DCGF risk was no higher for ILDKT than CLDKT (p interaction > .1). AR developed in 8.4% of CLDKT, 18.2% of PLNF, 21.3% of PFNC, and 21.7% of PCC recipients, which translated to higher AR (aOR PLNF = 1.45 2.093.02 ; PFNC = 1.67 2.403.46 ; PCC = 1.48 2.243.37 ). Although the impact of AR on mortality was no higher for ILDKT than CLDKT (p interaction = .1), its impact on DCGF risk was less consequential for ILDKT (aHR = 1.34 1.621.95 ) than CLDKT (aHR = 1.96 2.292.67 ) (p interaction = .004). Providers should consider these risks during preoperative counseling, and strategies to mitigate them should be considered.

  • Kantachuvesiri S
  • Ingsathit A
  • Thammanichanond D
  • Choochaeam K
  • Sra-Ium S
  • et al.
Transplant Proc. 2021 Apr;53(3):995-1000 doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.08.019.

Pretransplant desensitization protocols, including plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, induction antibody therapy, and intensive maintenance immunosuppression, are generally employed in kidney transplant recipients who have positive status for donor-specific anti-HLA antibody (DSA). To avoid serious infectious complications, the authors designed a novel low-dose protocol in Thai patients undergoing DSA+ living-related kidney transplantation (LRKT).


A retrospective cohort study of the patients who underwent DSA+ LRKT was conducted. The novel protocol consisted of 3 to 5 sessions of pretransplant double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) with or without low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin together with low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) induction (1-1.5 mg/kg/d for 3-4 days) and low-dose tacrolimus (Tac) (trough level 5-10 ng/mL), mycophenolate, and prednisolone.


The study included 17 patients. The lymphocyte crossmatch via complement-dependent cytotoxicity was negative in 12 patients and positive for B cell immunoglobulin M in 5 patients. The novel desensitization protocol resulted in a decrease of at least 50% of DSA mean fluorescence intensity from baseline (from 4320 ± 549 before DFPP to 1601 ± 350 before transplantation, P < .005) and successful kidney transplantation with good allograft function in all cases. Early DSA rebound was observed in 3 patients after transplantation, and kidney biopsy revealed subclinical antibody-mediated rejection in 1 patient and diffuse C4d staining without cell infiltration in 2 patients. There were good long-term outcomes in patient and graft survival (100% and 94.1%, respectively). Only 1 allograft loss occurred because of nonadherence. The majority of patients have stable allograft function with serum creatinine less than 1.5 mg/dL. However, infections, including CMV and other organisms, were commonly observed.


Desensitization protocol with DFPP, low-dose ATG, and Tac provides excellent outcomes in living donor kidney transplantation in highly sensitized Asian populations.

  • Echterdiek F
  • Latus J
  • Döhler B
  • Schwenger V
  • Süsal C
Int J Immunogenet. 2021 Apr;48(2):201-210 doi: 10.1111/iji.12512.

Due to a widespread organ shortage, the use of expanded criteria donors (ECDs) in kidney transplantation has increased persistently, reaching approximately 40% in recent years. Whether human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching between donor and recipient should be part of allocation algorithms in transplantation of ECD kidneys, and especially of ECD kidneys from ≥70-year-old donors, is still in question. To this end, 135,529 kidney transplantations performed between 2000 and 2017 and reported to the Collaborative Transplant Study were analysed and the impact of HLA-A+B+DR mismatches on death-censored graft and patient survival as well as on rejection episodes was investigated. Results were stratified according to donor status (standard criteria donor (SCD) versus ECD) and age of ECD. HLA incompatibility increased the five-year death-censored graft failure risk similarly strong in recipients of ECD and SCD transplants (hazard ratio (HR) per HLA mismatch 1.078 and 1.075, respectively; p < .001 for both). Its impact on rejection treatments during the first post-transplant year was also significant but slightly weaker for recipients of ECD transplants (risk ratio (RR) per HLA mismatch 1.10 for ECD transplants and 1.13 for SCD transplants; p < .001 for both). Mortality increased gradually from zero to six HLA mismatches in recipients of SCD transplants, whereas for ECD transplants a significant increase was notable only from zero to more than zero mismatches. A significant but slightly less pronounced impact of HLA incompatibility on graft failure was observed in transplants from ≥70- compared with <70-year-old ECDs (HR per mismatch 1.047 and 1.093; p = .009 and < 0.001, respectively). The influence of HLA mismatches on rejection treatments was the same for both ECD age groups (RR = 1.10, p < .001 and p = .004, respectively). Our data indicate that HLA matching should be part of allocation algorithms not only in transplantation of kidneys from SCDs but also from ECDs.

  • Daniëls L
  • Claas FHJ
  • Kramer CSM
  • Senev A
  • Vanden Driessche M
  • et al.
Transpl Immunol. 2021 Apr;65:101287 doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2020.101287.

The impact of HLA-DP mismatches on renal allograft outcome is still poorly understood and is suggested to be less than that of the other HLA loci. The common association of HLA-DP donor-specific antibodies (DSA) with other DSA obviates the evaluation of the actual effect of HLA-DP DSA.


From a large multicenter data collection, we retrospectively evaluated the significance of HLA-DP DSA on transplant outcome and the immunogenicity of HLA-DP eplet mismatches with respect to the induction of HLA-DP DSA. Furthermore, we evaluated the association between the MFI of HLA-DP antibodies detected in Luminex assays and the outcome of flowcytometric/complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatches.


In patients with isolated pretransplant HLA-DP antibodies (N = 13), 6 experienced antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and 3 patients lost their graft. In HLAMatchmaker analysis of HLA-DP mismatches (N = 72), HLA-DP DSA developed after cessation of immunosuppression in all cases with 84DEAV (N = 14), in 86% of cases with 85GPM (N = 6/7), in 50% of cases with 56E (N = 6/12) and in 40% of cases with 56A mismatch (N = 2/5). Correlation analysis between isolated HLA-DP DSA MFI and crossmatches (N = 90) showed negative crossmatch results with HLA-DP DSA MFI <2000 (N = 14). Below an MFI of 10,000 CDC crossmatches were also negative (N = 33). Above these MFI values both positive (N = 35) and negative (N = 16) crossmatch results were generated.


Isolated HLA-DP DSA are rare, yet constitute a significant risk for AMR. We identified high-risk eplet mismatches that can lead to HLA-DP DSA formation. We therefore recommend HLA-DP typing to perform HLA-DP DSA analysis before transplantation. HLA-DP DSA with high MFI were not always correlated with positive crossmatch results.

  • Mohammadhassanzadeh H
  • Oualkacha K
  • Zhang W
  • Klement W
  • Bourdiec A
  • et al.
Kidney Int Rep. 2021 Mar 30;6(6):1567-1579 doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2021.03.877.

To mitigate risks related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) incompatibility, we assessed whether certain structurally defined HLA targets present in donors but absent from recipients, known as eplet mismatches (EMM), are associated with death-censored graft failure (DCGF).


We studied a cohort of 118,313 American 0% panel reactive antibodies (PRA) first kidney transplant recipients (2000 to 2015) from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Imputed allele-level donor and recipient HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 genotypes were converted to the repertoire of EMM. We fit survival models for each EMM with significance thresholds corrected for false discovery rate and validated those in an independent PRA > 0% cohort. We conducted network-based analyses to model relationships among EMM and developed models to select the subset of EMM most predictive of DCGF.


Of 412 EMM observed, 119 class I and 118 class II EMM were associated with DCGF. Network analysis showed that although 210 eplets formed profiles of 2 to 12 simultaneously occurring EMMs, 202 were singleton EMMs that were not involved in any profile. A variable selection procedure identified 55 single HLA class I and II EMMs in 70% of the dataset; of those, 15 EMMs (9 singleton and 6 involved in profiles) were predictive of DCGF in the remaining dataset.


Our analysis distinguished increasingly smaller subsets of EMMs associated with increased risk of DCGF. Validation of these EMMs as important predictors of transplant outcomes (in contrast to acceptable EMMs) in datasets with measured allele-level genotypes will support their role as immunodominant EMMs worthy of consideration in organ allocation schemes.

  • Noble J
  • Metzger A
  • Naciri Bennani H
  • Daligault M
  • Masson D
  • et al.
J Clin Med. 2021 Mar 23;10(6) doi: 10.3390/jcm10061316.

Nearly 18% of patients on a waiting list for kidney transplantation (KT) are highly sensitized, which make access to KT more difficult. We assessed the efficacy and tolerance of different techniques (plasma exchanges [PE], double-filtration plasmapheresis [DFPP], and immunoadsorption [IA]) to remove donor specific antibodies (DSA) in the setting of HLA-incompatible (HLAi) KT. All patients that underwent apheresis for HLAi KT within a single center were included. Intra-session and inter-session Mean Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) decrease in DSA, clinical and biological tolerances were assessed. A total of 881 sessions were performed for 45 patients: 107 DFPP, 54 PE, 720 IA. The procedures led to HLAi KT in 39 patients (87%) after 29 (15-51) days. A higher volume of treated plasma was associated with a greater decrease of inter-session class I and II DSA (p = 0.04, p = 0.02). IA, PE, and a lower maximal DSA MFI were associated with a greater decrease in intra-session class II DSA (p < 0.01). Safety was good: severe adverse events occurred in 17 sessions (1.9%), more frequently with DFPP (6.5%) p < 0.01. Hypotension occurred in 154 sessions (17.5%), more frequently with DFPP (p < 0.01). Apheresis is well tolerated (IA and PE > DFPP) and effective at removing HLA antibodies and allows HLAi KT for sensitized patients.

  • Meneghini M
  • Crespo E
  • Niemann M
  • Torija A
  • Lloberas N
  • et al.
Front Immunol. 2021 Mar 10;11:623276 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.623276.

Donor/recipient molecular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch predicts primary B-cell alloimmune activation, yet the impact on de novo donor-specific T-cell alloimmunity (dnDST) remains undetermined. The hypothesis of our study is that donor/recipient HLA mismatches assessed at the molecular level may also influence a higher susceptibility to the development of posttransplant primary T-cell alloimmunity. In this prospective observational study, 169 consecutive kidney transplant recipients without preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and with high resolution donor/recipient HLA typing were evaluated for HLA molecular mismatch scores using different informatic algorithms [amino acid mismatch, eplet MM, and Predicted Indirectly Recognizable HLA Epitopes (PIRCHE-II)]. Primary donor-specific alloimmune activation over the first 2 years posttransplantation was assessed by means of both dnDSA and dnDST using single antigen bead (SAB) and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays, respectively. Also, the predominant alloantigen presenting pathway priming DST alloimmunity and the contribution of main alloreactive T-cell subsets were further characterized in vitro. Pretransplantation, 78/169 (46%) were DST+ whereas 91/169 (54%) DST-. At 2 years, 54/169 (32%) patients showed detectable DST responses: 23/54 (42%) dnDST and 31/54 (57%) persistently positive (persistDST+). 24/169 (14%) patients developed dnDSA. A strong correlation was observed between the three distinct molecular mismatch scores and they all accurately predicted dnDSA formation, in particular at the DQ locus. Likewise, HLA molecular incompatibility predicted the advent of dnDST, especially when assessed by PIRCHE-II score (OR 1.014 95% CI 1.001-1.03, p=0.04). While pretransplant DST predicted the development of posttransplant BPAR (OR 5.18, 95% CI=1.64-16.34, p=0.005) and particularly T cell mediated rejection (OR 5.33, 95% CI=1.45-19.66, p=0.012), patients developing dnDST were at significantly higher risk of subsequent dnDSA formation (HR 2.64, 95% CI=1.08-6.45, p=0.03). In vitro experiments showed that unlike preformed DST that is predominantly primed by CD8+ direct pathway T cells, posttransplant DST may also be activated by the indirect pathway of alloantigen presentation, and predominantly driven by CD4+ alloreactive T cells in an important proportion of patients. De novo donor-specific cellular alloreactivity seems to precede subsequent humoral alloimmune activation and is influenced by a poor donor/recipient HLA molecular matching.

  • Shieh M
  • Hayeck TJ
  • Dinh A
  • Duke JL
  • Chitnis N
  • et al.
Transplantation. 2021 Mar 1;105(3):637-647 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003272.

HLA molecular mismatch (MM) is a risk factor for de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) development in solid organ transplantation. HLA expression differences have also been associated with adverse outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplantation. We sought to study both MM and expression in assessing dnDSA risk.


One hundred three HLA-DP-mismatched solid organ transplantation pairs were retrospectively analyzed. MM was computed using amino acids (aa), eplets, and, supplementarily, Grantham/Epstein scores. DPB1 alleles were classified as rs9277534-A (low-expression) or rs9277534-G (high-expression) linked. To determine the associations between risk factors and dnDSA, logistic regression, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and population-based analyses were performed.


A high-risk AA:GX (recipient:donor) expression combination (X = A or G) demonstrated strong association with HLA-DP dnDSA (P = 0.001). MM was also associated with HLA-DP dnDSA when evaluated by itself (eplet P = 0.007, aa P = 0.003, Grantham P = 0.005, Epstein P = 0.004). When attempting to determine the relative individual effects of the risk factors in multivariable analysis, only AA:GX expression status retained a strong association (relative risk = 18.6, P = 0.007 with eplet; relative risk = 15.8, P = 0.02 with aa), while MM was no longer significant (eplet P = 0.56, aa P = 0.51). Importantly, these risk factors are correlated, due to LD between the expression-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism and polymorphisms along HLA-DPB1.


The MM and expression risk factors each appear to be strong predictors of HLA-DP dnDSA and to possess clinical utility; however, these two risk factors are closely correlated. These metrics may represent distinct ways of characterizing a common overlapping dnDSA risk profile, but they are not independent. Further, we demonstrate the importance and detailed implications of LD effects in dnDSA risk assessment and possibly transplantation overall.