349 results
349 results
  • Jatana SS
  • Zhao H
  • Bow LM
  • Cozzi E
  • Batal I
  • et al.
Transplantation. 2023 Jan 1;107(1):231-253 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000004262.

There is no standard definition for "HLA incompatible" transplants. For the first time, we systematically assessed how HLA incompatibility was defined in contemporary peer-reviewed publications and its prognostic implication to transplant outcomes.


We combined 2 independent searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 2015 to 2019. Content-expert reviewers screened for original research on outcomes of HLA-incompatible transplants (defined as allele or molecular mismatch and solid-phase or cell-based assays). We ascertained the completeness of reporting on a predefined set of variables assessing HLA incompatibility, therapies, and outcomes. Given significant heterogeneity, we conducted narrative synthesis and assessed risk of bias in studies examining the association between death-censored graft failure and HLA incompatibility.


Of 6656 screened articles, 163 evaluated transplant outcomes by HLA incompatibility. Most articles reported on cytotoxic/flow T-cell crossmatches (n = 98). Molecular genotypes were reported for selected loci at the allele-group level. Sixteen articles reported on epitope compatibility. Pretransplant donor-specific HLA antibodies were often considered (n = 143); yet there was heterogeneity in sample handling, assay procedure, and incomplete reporting on donor-specific HLA antibodies assignment. Induction (n = 129) and maintenance immunosuppression (n = 140) were frequently mentioned but less so rejection treatment (n = 72) and desensitization (n = 70). Studies assessing death-censored graft failure risk by HLA incompatibility were vulnerable to bias in the participant, predictor, and analysis domains.


Optimization of transplant outcomes and personalized care depends on accurate HLA compatibility assessment. Reporting on a standard set of variables will help assess generalizability of research, allow knowledge synthesis, and facilitate international collaboration in clinical trials.

  • Chowdhry M
  • Yadav A
  • Sharma V
  • Agrawal S
Hematol Transfus Cell Ther. 2022 Dec 24; doi: 10.1016/j.htct.2022.11.009.

Despite an increase in the rate of successful live donor renal transplantation done annually, the number of potential recipients with acceptable donors is relegated to the ever-expanding cadaver-donor waiting list due to sensitization to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. If not sufficiently suppressed, these preformed HLA antibodies can trigger antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and early graft loss. To ameliorate this situation, various desensitization treatments are administered to provide a survival benefit to highly sensitized patients.


One hundred and six patients in the time frame of January 2017 to March 2019 were included in the study group. The desensitization protocol included therapeutic plasma exchange and administration of low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (100 mg/kg per therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) session) to highly sensitized patients (treatment group) who subsequently underwent renal transplantation after negative pre-transplant Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Luminex crossmatch (CDC/LumXM). We compared graft survival rates between the group undergoing desensitization (treatment group) and matched control group of patients that underwent HLA-compatible transplantation.


In the treatment group, Kaplan-Meier analysis estimates an average rate of patient graft survival of 95.2% at 3 years post-transplant, as compared with the rate of 86.9% in the same time frame for the control-matched group (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).


Desensitization treatment with TPE before live donor renal transplantation in the case of patients with HLA sensitization provides better survival benefits along with monitoring for donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and other infections, rather than waiting for a compatible organ donor. The data lays out evidence that desensitization treatments can assist overcome HLA incompatibility barriers in live donor renal transplantation.

  • Frutos MÁ
  • Crespo M
  • Valentín MO
  • Alonso-Melgar Á
  • Alonso J
  • et al.
Nefrologia (Engl Ed). 2022 Dec;42 Suppl 2:5-132 doi: 10.1016/j.nefroe.2022.07.001.

This Guide for Living Donor Kidney Transplantation (LDKT) has been prepared with the sponsorship of the Spanish Society of Nephrology (SEN), the Spanish Transplant Society (SET), and the Spanish National Transplant Organization (ONT). It updates evidence to offer the best chronic renal failure treatment when a potential living donor is available. The core aim of this Guide is to supply clinicians who evaluate living donors and transplant recipients with the best decision-making tools, to optimise their outcomes. Moreover, the role of living donors in the current KT context should recover the level of importance it had until recently. To this end the new forms of incompatible HLA and/or ABO donation, as well as the paired donation which is possible in several hospitals with experience in LDKT, offer additional ways to treat renal patients with an incompatible donor. Good results in terms of patient and graft survival have expanded the range of circumstances under which living renal donors are accepted. Older donors are now accepted, as are others with factors that affect the decision, such as a borderline clinical history or alterations, which when evaluated may lead to an additional number of transplantations. This Guide does not forget that LDKT may lead to risk for the donor. Pre-donation evaluation has to centre on the problems which may arise over the short or long-term, and these have to be described to the potential donor so that they are able take them into account. Experience over recent years has led to progress in risk analysis, to protect donors' health. This aspect always has to be taken into account by LDKT programmes when evaluating potential donors. Finally, this Guide has been designed to aid decision-making, with recommendations and suggestions when uncertainties arise in pre-donation studies. Its overarching aim is to ensure that informed consent is based on high quality studies and information supplied to donors and recipients, offering the strongest possible guarantees.

  • Rennie TJW
  • Battle RK
  • Abel AA
  • McConnell S
  • McLaren R
  • et al.
Nephrology (Carlton). 2022 Dec;27(12):962-972 doi: 10.1111/nep.14102.

Reports of HLA incompatible (HLAi) kidney transplant outcomes are inconclusive, especially in the context of lower level Donor Specific Antibodies (DSA).


Multi-centre national cohort study of HLAi kidney transplant recipients matched in 1:2 ratio with HLA compatible (HLAc) kidney transplant recipients. HLAi defined as DSA identified by Luminex. Antibody mediated rejection (AMR) and transplant-survival were analysed using Kaplan-Meier plots. Propensity score (PS) matching was used to compare recipient and transplant survival between groups.


We included 61 HLAi and 122 HLAc recipients; mean age 46 years; 60% female. MFIT0 : 3327 (IQR 1352-6458), 23 (38%) were Flow cytometry crossmatch positive (FC-XMPOS ). DSAPOS /FC-XMPOS transplantation carried an increased risk of AMR at 1 year (52%) compared to DSAPOS /FC-XMNEG (27%) and HLAc (0%). Unadjusted death censored graft loss at 3 years was 13% (HLAi) and 8% (HLAc). Three-year patient survival was 95% in HLAc, 84% in DSAPOS /FC-XMNEG and 69% in DSAPOS /FC-XMPOS recipients; 58% of HLAi deaths were infection-related. HLA incompatibility was associated with a decreased 3-year survival in our PS-matched cohort.


In kidney transplantation, DSA and positive FC-XM carries an increased risk of AMR. Despite inferior transplant and survival outcomes compared to HLAc transplantation, it remains a realistic option for highly sensitized patients facing prolonged waiting times and reduced survival on dialysis.

  • Heinemann FM
  • Lindemann M
  • Keles D
  • Witzke O
  • Kribben A
  • et al.
Hla. 2022 Dec;100(6):553-562 doi: 10.1111/tan.14790.

It is still not fully elucidated which pretransplant donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) are harmful after kidney transplantation. In particular, it needs to be clarified whether cumulative mean fluorescence intensities (MFI) against multiple HLA specificities have a predictive value for allograft function. Our retrospective single centre study analyzed preformed HLA antibodies determined by Luminex™ Single Antigen Bead (SAB) assay, including C1q addition, in relation to rejection and clinical outcome in 255 cross match negative kidney allograft recipients. Only 33 recipients (13%) of the total cohort showed early AMR during the first year posttransplant, but in patients with pre-transplant DSA the rate was increased to 15 out of 40 (38%). Three year graft survival was significantly shorter in patients with histological signs of AMR compared with patients without AMR or with no biopsy (74%, 92%, and 97%, respectively, p < 0.0001). In patients with HLA-DSA, a cumulative MFI value of all HLA antibodies of more than 103.000 indicated the highest risk for AMR posttransplant (p = 0.01). In conclusion, in patients with HLA-DSA, the cumulative MFI value may help to further stratify the risk of AMR after kidney transplantation.

  • Fernández Rivera C
  • Rodríguez Magariños C
  • Calvo Rodríguez M
  • Ferreiro Hermida T
  • Blanco Pardo M
  • et al.
Life (Basel). 2022 Nov 29;12(12) doi: 10.3390/life12121993.

Desensitization allows the performance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-incompatible transplants. However, the incidence of acute rejection (AR) is high. This study aims to analyze the incidence of AR after transplantation with HLA-incompatible living donors in patients who underwent desensitization. Patients were immunosuppressed with tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid derivatives, and steroids after being desensitized with rituximab, plasma exchange, and/or immunoadsorption with specific cytomegalovirus immunoglobulins. A negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity or flow cytometry crossmatch and a donor-specific antibody titer < 1000 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) were used to determine desensitization efficacy. A total of 36 patients underwent desensitization, and 27 (75%) were transplanted. After a follow-up of 58 ± 58 months (Min−Max: 0.13−169.5), five episodes of AR occurred: two antibody-mediated and three T-cell-mediated. No differences were found in baseline calculated panel-reactive antibodies (cPRA), class I or II MFI, number of antibodies, or Relative Intensity Scale (RIS) between AR and non-AR patients. Patients with antibody-mediated AR had higher cPRA (NS), MFI class I (p = 0.07) and class II (p = 0.006), and RIS (p = 0.01). The two patients with antibody-mediated AR and one patient with T-cell-mediated AR lost their grafts. In conclusion, the incidence of acute antibody-mediated rejection after desensitization was 7.4%, which occurred early post-transplantation in patients with high MFI and was associated with early graft loss.

  • Pandey P
  • Kumari S
  • Mandal S
  • Sinha VK
  • Devra AK
  • et al.
Transpl Immunol. 2022 Oct;74:101656 doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2022.101656.

Advances in immune suppression therapies and desensitization have made possible kidney transplantation regardless of HLA incompatibility. Single antigen bead assay (SAB) is a semi-quantitative estimation of the amount of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies present in the recipient plasma, and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) generated gives this rough estimation of the antibodies present in the recipient. Here we present a case of successful kidney transplantation in a patient who expressed DSA with high MFI. A 33-yr-old male, diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on regular maintenance hemodialysis, opted for second kidney transplant with his sibling as prospective donor and was referred to the department of Transplant Immunology for histocompatibility testing. Patient had HLA incompatibility with multiple DSA identified by SAB. Patient undergone 20 sessions of plasma exchange till discharge and finally till 6 months graft was functioning well. The authors thus conclude that the option of a high-risk HLA incompatible kidney transplant can be offered to recipients with high MFI DSA, who wish to undergo transplantation for end stage renal disease.

  • Mamode N
  • Bestard O
  • Claas F
  • Furian L
  • Griffin S
  • et al.
Transpl Int. 2022 Aug 10;35:10511 doi: 10.3389/ti.2022.10511.

This guideline, from a European Society of Organ Transplantation (ESOT) working group, concerns the management of kidney transplant patients with HLA antibodies. Sensitization should be defined using a virtual parameter such as calculated Reaction Frequency (cRF), which assesses HLA antibodies derived from the actual organ donor population. Highly sensitized patients should be prioritized in kidney allocation schemes and linking allocation schemes may increase opportunities. The use of the ENGAGE 5 ((Bestard et al., Transpl Int, 2021, 34: 1005-1018) system and online calculators for assessing risk is recommended. The Eurotransplant Acceptable Mismatch program should be extended. If strategies for finding a compatible kidney are very unlikely to yield a transplant, desensitization may be considered and should be performed with plasma exchange or immunoadsorption, supplemented with IViG and/or anti-CD20 antibody. Newer therapies, such as imlifidase, may offer alternatives. Few studies compare HLA incompatible transplantation with remaining on the waiting list, and comparisons of morbidity or quality of life do not exist. Kidney paired exchange programs (KEP) should be more widely used and should include unspecified and deceased donors, as well as compatible living donor pairs. The use of a KEP is preferred to desensitization, but highly sensitized patients should not be left on a KEP list indefinitely if the option of a direct incompatible transplant exists.

  • Lee H
  • Min JW
  • Kang H
  • Lee H
  • Eum SH
  • et al.
Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jul 1;23(13) doi: 10.3390/ijms23137357.

We investigated whether HLA class II eplet mismatch was related to dnDSA development and analyzed its combined impact with tacrolimus levels for kidney transplantation outcomes. A total of 347 kidney transplants were included. HLA Matchmaker was used for the single molecular eplet, total eplet, antibody (Ab)-verified eplet mismatch analyses, and Ab-verified single molecular analysis to identify HLA-DR/DQ molecular thresholds for the risk of dnDSA development. A time-weighted tacrolimus trough level (TAC-C0) of 5 ng/mL and a TAC-C0 time-weighted coefficient variability (TWCV) of 20% were applied to find the combined effects on dnDSA development. A high level of mismatch for single molecular eplet (DQ ≥ 10), total eplet (DQ ≥ 12), Ab-verified eplet (DQ ≥ 4), and Ab-verified single molecular eplet (DQ ≥ 4) significantly correlated with HLA class II dnDSA development. Class II dnDSA developed mostly in patients with low TAC-C0 and high eplet mismatch. In the multivariable analyses, low TAC-C0 and high eplet mismatch showed the highest hazard ratio for the development of dnDSA. No significant combined effect was observed in dnDSA development according to TWCV. In conclusion, the determination of HLA class II eplet mismatch may improve the risk stratification for dnDSA development, especially in conjunction with tacrolimus trough levels.

  • Bockermann R
  • Järnum S
  • Runström A
  • Lorant T
  • Winstedt L
  • et al.
Transplantation. 2022 Jul 1;106(7):1485-1496 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000004031.

Imlifidase is an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-specific protease conditionally approved in the EU for desensitization in highly sensitized crossmatch positive kidney transplant patients. Imlifidase efficiently cleaves both heavy chains of IgG in a 2-step process. However, low levels of the intermediate cleavage product, single-cleaved IgG (scIgG), may persist in the circulation. The study objective was to investigate Fc-mediated effector functions of scIgG and its potential impact on common clinical immunologic assays used to assess transplant eligibility.


Imlifidase-generated scIgG, obtained by in vitro cleavage of HLA-sensitized patient serum or selected antibodies, was investigated in different complement- and FcγR-dependent assays and models, including clinical tests used to evaluate HLA-specific antibodies.


ScIgG had significantly reduced Fc-mediated effector function compared with intact IgG, although some degree of activity in complement- and FcγR-dependent models was still detectable. A preparation of concentrated scIgG generated from a highly HLA-sensitized individual gave rise to a positive signal in the anti-HLA IgG LABScreen, which uses anti-Fc detection, but was entirely negative in the C1qScreen. The same high-concentration HLA-binding scIgG preparation also generated positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity responses against 80%-100% of donor T and B cells, although follow-up titrations demonstrated a much lower intrinsic activity than for intact anti-HLA IgG.


ScIgG has a significantly reduced capacity to mediate Fc-dependent effector functions. However, remaining HLA-reactive scIgG in plasma after imlifidase treatment can cause positive assay results equivalent to intact IgG in clinical assays. Therefore, complete IgG cleavage after imlifidase treatment is essential to allow correct decision-making in relation to transplant eligibility.