Repository for Antibody Incompatible Transplantation Evidence
4 results (filtered)
  • Defendi F
  • Malvezzi P
  • Eskandary F
  • Cesbron JY
  • Rostaing L
  • Böhmig GA
  • Dumestre-Pérard C
Transpl Int. 2019 Aug;32(8):876-883 doi: 10.1111/tri.13431.

The complement system has been implicated in several kidney diseases, such as antibody-mediated rejection after kidney transplantation. Antibody-depletion techniques allow successful ABO- and/or HLA-incompatible transplantation. Considering the IgG removal, the use of semi-selective immunoadsorption (IA) has been advocated. However, because of results on incomplete IgM depletion, the adjunctive use of membrane filtration (MF) has been proposed to enhance the removal of macromolecules and to interfere with complement activation. This secondary endpoint analysis of a recently published randomized, controlled, cross-over trial was designed to investigate the effect of combined treatment IA + MF compared to IA alone on complement depletion. Two treatment sequences, a single session of IA + MF followed by IA (and vice versa), were analyzed with regard to C5b-9, properdin, and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels. Neither IA alone nor IA + MF provoked complement activation as demonstrated by stable low levels of C5b-9 after the procedure as compared to the previous. The combined treatment substantially lowered properdin (77% vs. 26% reduction, P < 0.0001) as well as MBL concentrations (81% vs. 11% reduction, P < 0.0001). Recovery of properdin and MBL levels appears to be longer after IA alone compared to IA + MF. Depletion of properdin and MBL levels may have potential clinical implications in the setting of kidney transplantation.

  • Hricik DE
  • Formica RN
  • Nickerson P
  • Rush D
  • Fairchild RL
  • Poggio ED
  • Gibson IW
  • Wiebe C
  • Tinckam K
  • Bunnapradist S
  • et al.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Dec;26(12):3114-22 doi: 10.1681/ASN.2014121234.

Concerns about adverse effects of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have prompted development of protocols that minimize their use. Whereas previous CNI withdrawal trials in heterogeneous cohorts showed unacceptable rates of acute rejection (AR), we hypothesized that we could identify individuals capable of tolerating CNI withdrawal by targeting immunologically quiescent kidney transplant recipients. The Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-09 Trial was a randomized, prospective study of nonsensitized primary recipients of living donor kidney transplants. Subjects received rabbit antithymocyte globulin, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Six months post-transplantation, subjects without de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs), AR, or inflammation at protocol biopsy were randomized to wean off or remain on tacrolimus. The intended primary end point was the change in interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy score between implantation and 24-month protocol biopsies. Serially collected urine CXCL9 ELISA results were correlated with outcomes. The study was terminated prematurely because of unacceptable rates of AR (4 of 14) and/or de novo DSAs (5 of 14) in the tacrolimus withdrawal arm. Positive urinary CXCL9 predated clinical detection of AR by a median of 15 days. Analyses showed that >16 HLA-DQ epitope mismatches and pretransplant, peripheral blood, donor-reactive IFN-γ ELISPOT assay results correlated with development of DSAs and/or AR on tacrolimus withdrawal. Although data indicate that urinary CXCL9 monitoring, epitope mismatches, and ELISPOT assays are potentially informative, complete CNI withdrawal must be strongly discouraged in kidney transplant recipients who are receiving standard-of-care immunosuppression, including those who are deemed to be immunologically quiescent on the basis of current clinical and laboratory criteria.

  • David-Neto E
  • Souza PS
  • Panajotopoulos N
  • Rodrigues H
  • Ventura CG
  • David DS
  • Lemos FB
  • Agena F
  • Nahas WC
  • Kalil JE
  • et al.
Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67(4):355-61 doi: 10.6061/clinics/2012(04)09.

The significance of pretransplant, donor-specific antibodies on long-term patient outcomes is a subject of debate. This study evaluated the impact and the presence or absence of donor-specific antibodies after kidney transplantation on short- and long-term graft outcomes.


We analyzed the frequency and dynamics of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies following renal transplantation from a randomized trial that was conducted from 2002 to 2004 and correlated these findings with patient outcomes through 2009. Transplants were performed against a complement-dependent T- and B-negative crossmatch. Pre- and posttransplant sera were available from 94 of the 118 patients (80%). Antibodies were detected using a solid-phase (Luminex®), single-bead assay, and all tests were performed simultaneously.


Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19%) developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57%) exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months.


Pretransplant donor-specific antibodies with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch are associated with a risk for the development of antibody-mediated rejection, although survival rates are similar when patients transpose the first months after receiving the graft. Our data also suggest that early posttransplant donor-specific antibody monitoring should increase knowledge of antibody dynamics and their impact on long-term graft outcome.

  • Jordan SC
  • Tyan D
  • Stablein D
  • McIntosh M
  • Rose S
  • Vo A
  • Toyoda M
  • Davis C
  • Shapiro R
  • Adey D
  • et al.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Dec;15(12):3256-62 doi: 10.1097/01.ASN.0000145878.92906.9F.

Reported are the reduction of anti-HLA antibody levels and improvement of transplant rates by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Between 1997 and 2000, a total of 101 adult patients with ESRD who were highly sensitized to HLA antigens (panel reactive antibody [PRA] > or =50% monthly for 3 mo) enrolled onto an NIH-sponsored trial (IG02). Patients received IVIG or placebo. Subjects received IVIG 2 g/kg monthly for 4 mo or an equivalent volume of placebo with additional infusions at 12 and 24 mo after entry if not transplanted. If transplanted, additional infusions were given monthly for 4 mo. Baseline PRA levels were similar in both groups. However, IVIG significantly reduced PRA levels in study subjects compared with placebo. Sixteen IVIG patients (35%) and eight placebo patients (17%) were transplanted. Rejection episodes occurred in 9 of 17 IVIG and 1 of 10 placebo subjects. Seven graft failures occurred (four IVIG, three placebo) among adherent patients with similar 2-yr graft survival rates (80% IVIG, 75% placebo). With a median follow-up of 2 yr after transplant, the viable transplants functioned normally with a mean +/- SEM serum creatinine of 1.68 +/- 0.28 for IVIG versus 1.28 +/- 0.13 mg/dl for placebo. Adverse events rates were similar in both groups. We conclude that IVIG is better than placebo in reducing anti-HLA antibody levels and improving transplantation rates in highly sensitized patients with ESRD. Transplant rates for highly sensitized patients with ESRD awaiting kidney transplants are improved with IVIG therapy.