Repository for Antibody Incompatible Transplantation Evidence
343 results
  • West-Thielke PM
  • Ipema HJ
  • Campbell-Lee S
  • Benedetti E
  • Kaplan B
  • Thielke JJ
Transplant Proc. 2021 Jun;53(5):1548-1553 doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.01.010.
BACKGROUND:

Recipients of ABO-incompatible (ABOI) and positive crossmatch (PXM) kidney transplants are at high risk for antibody-mediated acute rejection. Despite aggressive immunosuppression in high-risk patients, the incidence of acute rejection remains considerably higher than in other groups. No published studies have examined plasma concentrations of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) in patients undergoing plasma exchange. The objectives of this study were to compare plasma ATG concentrations before and after plasma exchange in ABOI and PXM kidney transplant patients to determine the amount removed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This prospective pharmacokinetic evaluation enrolled 10 patients undergoing ABOI or PXM kidney transplant at an academic medical center. Blood and waste plasma samples from 5 patients were assayed for total and active ATG concentrations. Patient records were monitored for renal function and rejection rates in the first 6 months post-transplant.

RESULTS:

Total ATG concentrations decreased a mean of 59.78 ± 13.91% after each plasma exchange session, and active ATG levels decreased a mean of 56.8 ± 17.08%. Mean daily concentrations reflect a lack of expected ATG accumulation. Only 1 of 4 patients had detectable ATG concentrations after 30 days. After 6 months, the incidence of acute rejection in this sample was 44% and graft survival was 89%.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first study to show that plasma exchange removes a substantial amount of ATG in high-risk kidney transplant patients. Based on these results, we believe these high-risk patients have been traditionally underdosed.

  • Pandey P
  • Setya D
  • Sinha VK
  • Devra AK
  • Bhatt AP
  • Pande A
  • Kumar P
  • Singh MK
  • Ranjan S
J Clin Apher. 2021 Jun;36(3):299-312 doi: 10.1002/jca.21860.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Although desensitization is well established, concerns about graft outcome, patient survival and rejection still exist. The present study aims at comparing outcomes of renal transplant recipients across simultaneous ABO and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) incompatibility barriers to those with ABO or HLA incompatibility alone.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This was a retrospective study conducted from October 2015 to December 2018. All patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic kidney disease, who were prospective HLA incompatible (HLAi) and/or ABO incompatible (ABOi) renal transplant recipients were included. A total of 400 cases including 36 ABOi transplants, 154 HLAi transplants, 10 simultaneously ABO and HLA incompatible transplants, and 200 ABO (ABOc) and HLA (HLAc) compatible kidney transplants from living donors were included.

RESULTS:

There were significantly more number of blood transfusions, previous transplants and pregnancies in HLAi transplant recipients relative to the ABOi or the control group. Mean number of therapeutic plasma exchange procedures per patient and mean plasma volume processed per procedure were slightly higher in the ABOi + HLAi category. The incidence of graft dysfunction due to suspected antibody-mediated rejection during first year was highest in the ABOi + HLAi group, followed by ABOc + HLAi and ABOi + HLAc, lowest in the ABOc + HLAc category. Mean time to first episode of graft dysfunction was significantly shorter with incompatible transplants. There were no kidney transplant recipient deaths in the study.

CONCLUSION:

Patient outcome and graft outcomes observed with incompatible transplants were not worse than those observed with compatible transplants.

  • Kute VB
  • Patel HV
  • Modi PR
  • Rizvi SJ
  • Engineer DP
  • Banerjee S
  • Butala BP
  • Gandhi S
  • Patel AH
  • Mishra VV
Transplantation. 2021 May 1;105(5):929-932 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003421.
  • Daligault M
  • Bardy B
  • Noble J
  • Bourdin A
  • Masson D
  • Naciri Bennani H
  • Bugnazet M
  • Malvezzi P
  • Rostaing L
  • Jouve T
Transplant Direct. 2021 Apr 22;7(5):e690 doi: 10.1097/TXD.0000000000001139.
BACKGROUND:

Highly HLA-sensitized kidney transplant candidates are difficult to desensitize, which reduces their chances of receiving a transplant.

METHODS:

We administered tocilizumab as a monotherapy (8 mg/kg once a mo) to 14 highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates. Highest mean fluorescence intensities of anti-HLA antibodies obtained before and after tocilizumab administration were compared from raw and diluted sera.

RESULTS:

The administration of tocilizumab significantly reduced dominant anti-HLA antibody sensitization. However, this decrease in mean fluorescence intensities was minor compared with the initial values.

CONCLUSIONS:

Tocilizumab as a monotherapy was not sufficient to allow highly sensitized kidney-transplant candidates to undergo transplantation and, therefore, was not an effective desensitization method.

  • Yoo J
  • Lee S
  • Lee HW
  • Lee S
  • Choi J
  • Han J
  • Kang H
  • Choi A
  • Hee Jang J
  • Oh EJ
Hum Immunol. 2021 Apr;82(4):302-308 doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2021.02.003.
INTRODUCTION:

Flow cytometric crossmatch assay (FCXM) is a sensitive cell-based method for evaluating the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) before transplantation. Recently, 96-well tray FCXM protocol (Halifax FCXM) with improved test efficiency has been introduced. The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of Halifax FCXM by correlating with DSA results based on single antigen bead (SAB) assays (virtual crossmatch, VXM).

METHODS:

A total of 341 FCXMs were evaluated for the detection of HLA-DSA. A positive VXM was defined as having at least one HLA - DSA (HLA-A, B, Cw, DR, DQB1) with ≥ 1000 MFI (mean fluorescence intensity) identified by SAB assay.

RESULTS:

Of a total 341 cases, 113 showed class I VXM (+) with class I DSA MFI ≥ 1000 exclusively against one or more donor HLA class I antigens (HLA-A, B, Cw), 72 had class I-/II + DSA, and 156 had VXM(-). Halifax T-FCXM showed a sensitivity of 87.6% (99/113) and a specificity of 98.2% (224/228) for detecting class I VXM (+). The concordance between T-FCXM and class I VXM was 94.7% (323/341). Halifax B-FCXM showed a sensitivity of 58.3% (42/72) and a specificity of 98.7% (154/156) for detecting class I-/II + DSAs. The concordance between B-FCXM and class I-/II + VXM was 86.0% (196/228). When we separately analyzed data, B-FCXM detected HLA-DR (+) (68.8%) and HLA-DQ (+) DSAs (71.0%) similarly (P > 0.05). T-FCXM detected 87.6%, 97.2%, and 98.2% of class I DSA-positive cases with MFI values (sumDSA) ≥ 1000, ≥ 3000, and ≥ 5000, respectively. B-FCXM detected 58.3% of class I-II + DSA -positive (≥1000) cases, but detected 76.7% (33/43) and 89.2% (33/37) of class I-II + DSAs if MFI values of sumDSA and immunodominant DSA (iDSA) were above 5000, respectively. Halifax FCXM had sensitivities of 91.5% and 96.2% for detecting VXM (+) having MFI values above 5000 for class I or class II sumDSA and iDSA, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

Halifax FCXM showed a good correlation, especially with SAB assay-based high MFI DSA or sumDSA. Concurrent application of FCXM with VXM can improve pre-transplant risk assessment and progress organ allocation efficiency.

  • Wen J
  • Basu A
  • Bentall A
  • Henderson N
  • Dukek B
  • Gandhi M
  • Schinstock C
Hum Immunol. 2021 Apr;82(4):240-246 doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2021.02.004.

Eplet mismatches are associated with de novo DSA (dnDSA) and antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) among the general kidney transplant population. However, it is unclear whether the level of eplet mismatch can be used for risk stratification among patients with dnDSA. We performed a retrospective observational study of kidney transplant recipients with dnDSA (n = 44) transplanted between 10/2007 and 5/2014 to evaluate eplet mismatch as a risk factor for ABMR and allograft loss among dnDSA patients. High resolution typing was inferred from by imputation based on ethnicity and NMDP haplotypes, and the eplet mismatch was calculated using the Epvix algorithm. Biopsies (N = 151) from 95.3%(42/44) of patients were reviewed. The mean (SD) eplet mismatch was 69.8(22.8). The ABMR incidence was 71.4% (30/42) and 5 year death censored allograft survival was 67.4% during the mean (SD) follow-up of 5.3 (3.1) years. ABMR and death-censored allograft survival were not correlated with eplet mismatch among dnDSA patients. However, medication adherence and dnDSA MFI < 3000 were associated with reduced ABMR incidence. Among patients with both of these favorable characteristics, only 35.7% (15/42) developed ABMR. In conclusion, the level of eplet mismatch does not correlate with ABMR or allograft loss among high risk kidney transplant patients with dnDSA.

  • Motter JD
  • Jackson KR
  • Long JJ
  • Waldram MM
  • Orandi BJ
  • Montgomery RA
  • Stegall MD
  • Jordan SC
  • Benedetti E
  • Dunn TB
  • et al.
Am J Transplant. 2021 Apr;21(4):1612-1621 doi: 10.1111/ajt.16471.

Incompatible living donor kidney transplant recipients (ILDKTr) have pre-existing donor-specific antibody (DSA) that, despite desensitization, may persist or reappear with resulting consequences, including delayed graft function (DGF) and acute rejection (AR). To quantify the risk of DGF and AR in ILDKT and downstream effects, we compared 1406 ILDKTr to 17 542 compatible LDKT recipients (CLDKTr) using a 25-center cohort with novel SRTR linkage. We characterized DSA strength as positive Luminex, negative flow crossmatch (PLNF); positive flow, negative cytotoxic crossmatch (PFNC); or positive cytotoxic crossmatch (PCC). DGF occurred in 3.1% of CLDKT, 3.5% of PLNF, 5.7% of PFNC, and 7.6% of PCC recipients, which translated to higher DGF for PCC recipients (aOR = 1.03 1.682.72 ). However, the impact of DGF on mortality and DCGF risk was no higher for ILDKT than CLDKT (p interaction > .1). AR developed in 8.4% of CLDKT, 18.2% of PLNF, 21.3% of PFNC, and 21.7% of PCC recipients, which translated to higher AR (aOR PLNF = 1.45 2.093.02 ; PFNC = 1.67 2.403.46 ; PCC = 1.48 2.243.37 ). Although the impact of AR on mortality was no higher for ILDKT than CLDKT (p interaction = .1), its impact on DCGF risk was less consequential for ILDKT (aHR = 1.34 1.621.95 ) than CLDKT (aHR = 1.96 2.292.67 ) (p interaction = .004). Providers should consider these risks during preoperative counseling, and strategies to mitigate them should be considered.

  • Kantachuvesiri S
  • Ingsathit A
  • Thammanichanond D
  • Choochaeam K
  • Sra-Ium S
  • Kitiyakara C
  • Nongnuch A
  • Sakulchairungrueng B
  • Worawichawong S
Transplant Proc. 2021 Apr;53(3):995-1000 doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.08.019.
BACKGROUND:

Pretransplant desensitization protocols, including plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, induction antibody therapy, and intensive maintenance immunosuppression, are generally employed in kidney transplant recipients who have positive status for donor-specific anti-HLA antibody (DSA). To avoid serious infectious complications, the authors designed a novel low-dose protocol in Thai patients undergoing DSA+ living-related kidney transplantation (LRKT).

METHODS:

A retrospective cohort study of the patients who underwent DSA+ LRKT was conducted. The novel protocol consisted of 3 to 5 sessions of pretransplant double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) with or without low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin together with low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) induction (1-1.5 mg/kg/d for 3-4 days) and low-dose tacrolimus (Tac) (trough level 5-10 ng/mL), mycophenolate, and prednisolone.

RESULTS:

The study included 17 patients. The lymphocyte crossmatch via complement-dependent cytotoxicity was negative in 12 patients and positive for B cell immunoglobulin M in 5 patients. The novel desensitization protocol resulted in a decrease of at least 50% of DSA mean fluorescence intensity from baseline (from 4320 ± 549 before DFPP to 1601 ± 350 before transplantation, P < .005) and successful kidney transplantation with good allograft function in all cases. Early DSA rebound was observed in 3 patients after transplantation, and kidney biopsy revealed subclinical antibody-mediated rejection in 1 patient and diffuse C4d staining without cell infiltration in 2 patients. There were good long-term outcomes in patient and graft survival (100% and 94.1%, respectively). Only 1 allograft loss occurred because of nonadherence. The majority of patients have stable allograft function with serum creatinine less than 1.5 mg/dL. However, infections, including CMV and other organisms, were commonly observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Desensitization protocol with DFPP, low-dose ATG, and Tac provides excellent outcomes in living donor kidney transplantation in highly sensitized Asian populations.

  • Echterdiek F
  • Latus J
  • Döhler B
  • Schwenger V
  • Süsal C
Int J Immunogenet. 2021 Apr;48(2):201-210 doi: 10.1111/iji.12512.

Due to a widespread organ shortage, the use of expanded criteria donors (ECDs) in kidney transplantation has increased persistently, reaching approximately 40% in recent years. Whether human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching between donor and recipient should be part of allocation algorithms in transplantation of ECD kidneys, and especially of ECD kidneys from ≥70-year-old donors, is still in question. To this end, 135,529 kidney transplantations performed between 2000 and 2017 and reported to the Collaborative Transplant Study were analysed and the impact of HLA-A+B+DR mismatches on death-censored graft and patient survival as well as on rejection episodes was investigated. Results were stratified according to donor status (standard criteria donor (SCD) versus ECD) and age of ECD. HLA incompatibility increased the five-year death-censored graft failure risk similarly strong in recipients of ECD and SCD transplants (hazard ratio (HR) per HLA mismatch 1.078 and 1.075, respectively; p < .001 for both). Its impact on rejection treatments during the first post-transplant year was also significant but slightly weaker for recipients of ECD transplants (risk ratio (RR) per HLA mismatch 1.10 for ECD transplants and 1.13 for SCD transplants; p < .001 for both). Mortality increased gradually from zero to six HLA mismatches in recipients of SCD transplants, whereas for ECD transplants a significant increase was notable only from zero to more than zero mismatches. A significant but slightly less pronounced impact of HLA incompatibility on graft failure was observed in transplants from ≥70- compared with <70-year-old ECDs (HR per mismatch 1.047 and 1.093; p = .009 and < 0.001, respectively). The influence of HLA mismatches on rejection treatments was the same for both ECD age groups (RR = 1.10, p < .001 and p = .004, respectively). Our data indicate that HLA matching should be part of allocation algorithms not only in transplantation of kidneys from SCDs but also from ECDs.

  • Daniëls L
  • Claas FHJ
  • Kramer CSM
  • Senev A
  • Vanden Driessche M
  • Emonds MP
  • Van Laecke S
  • Hellemans R
  • Abramowicz D
  • Naesens M
Transpl Immunol. 2021 Apr;65:101287 doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2020.101287.
BACKGROUND:

The impact of HLA-DP mismatches on renal allograft outcome is still poorly understood and is suggested to be less than that of the other HLA loci. The common association of HLA-DP donor-specific antibodies (DSA) with other DSA obviates the evaluation of the actual effect of HLA-DP DSA.

METHODS:

From a large multicenter data collection, we retrospectively evaluated the significance of HLA-DP DSA on transplant outcome and the immunogenicity of HLA-DP eplet mismatches with respect to the induction of HLA-DP DSA. Furthermore, we evaluated the association between the MFI of HLA-DP antibodies detected in Luminex assays and the outcome of flowcytometric/complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatches.

RESULTS:

In patients with isolated pretransplant HLA-DP antibodies (N = 13), 6 experienced antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and 3 patients lost their graft. In HLAMatchmaker analysis of HLA-DP mismatches (N = 72), HLA-DP DSA developed after cessation of immunosuppression in all cases with 84DEAV (N = 14), in 86% of cases with 85GPM (N = 6/7), in 50% of cases with 56E (N = 6/12) and in 40% of cases with 56A mismatch (N = 2/5). Correlation analysis between isolated HLA-DP DSA MFI and crossmatches (N = 90) showed negative crossmatch results with HLA-DP DSA MFI <2000 (N = 14). Below an MFI of 10,000 CDC crossmatches were also negative (N = 33). Above these MFI values both positive (N = 35) and negative (N = 16) crossmatch results were generated.

CONCLUSIONS:

Isolated HLA-DP DSA are rare, yet constitute a significant risk for AMR. We identified high-risk eplet mismatches that can lead to HLA-DP DSA formation. We therefore recommend HLA-DP typing to perform HLA-DP DSA analysis before transplantation. HLA-DP DSA with high MFI were not always correlated with positive crossmatch results.