Repository for Antibody Incompatible Transplantation Evidence
343 results
  • Shieh M
  • Hayeck TJ
  • Dinh A
  • Duke JL
  • Chitnis N
  • et al.
Transplantation. 2021 Mar 1;105(3):637-647 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003272.

HLA molecular mismatch (MM) is a risk factor for de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) development in solid organ transplantation. HLA expression differences have also been associated with adverse outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplantation. We sought to study both MM and expression in assessing dnDSA risk.


One hundred three HLA-DP-mismatched solid organ transplantation pairs were retrospectively analyzed. MM was computed using amino acids (aa), eplets, and, supplementarily, Grantham/Epstein scores. DPB1 alleles were classified as rs9277534-A (low-expression) or rs9277534-G (high-expression) linked. To determine the associations between risk factors and dnDSA, logistic regression, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and population-based analyses were performed.


A high-risk AA:GX (recipient:donor) expression combination (X = A or G) demonstrated strong association with HLA-DP dnDSA (P = 0.001). MM was also associated with HLA-DP dnDSA when evaluated by itself (eplet P = 0.007, aa P = 0.003, Grantham P = 0.005, Epstein P = 0.004). When attempting to determine the relative individual effects of the risk factors in multivariable analysis, only AA:GX expression status retained a strong association (relative risk = 18.6, P = 0.007 with eplet; relative risk = 15.8, P = 0.02 with aa), while MM was no longer significant (eplet P = 0.56, aa P = 0.51). Importantly, these risk factors are correlated, due to LD between the expression-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism and polymorphisms along HLA-DPB1.


The MM and expression risk factors each appear to be strong predictors of HLA-DP dnDSA and to possess clinical utility; however, these two risk factors are closely correlated. These metrics may represent distinct ways of characterizing a common overlapping dnDSA risk profile, but they are not independent. Further, we demonstrate the importance and detailed implications of LD effects in dnDSA risk assessment and possibly transplantation overall.

  • Tafulo S
  • Malheiro J
  • Santos S
  • Dias L
  • Almeida M
  • et al.
Int J Immunogenet. 2021 Feb;48(1):1-7 doi: 10.1111/iji.12519.

HLA donor-specific antibodies developed de novo after transplant remain a major cause of chronic allograft dysfunction. Our study main purpose was to determine whether HLA MM, assessed traditionally and by HLA total and AbVer eplet mismatch load (EptMM and EpvMM) assessed with HLAMatchMaker, had impact on dnDSA development after living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 96 LDKT between 2008 and 2017 performed in Hospital Santo António. Seven patients developed dnDSA-II and EpvMM and EptMM were greater in dnDSA-II group compared to the no dnDSA-II (18.0 ± 8.7 versus 9.9 ± 7.9, p = .041 and 41.3 ± 18.9 versus 23.1 ± 16.7, p = .018), which is not observed for AgMM (2.29 versus 1.56; p = .09). In a multivariate analysis, we found that preformed DSA (HR = 7.983; p = .023), living unrelated donors (HR = 8.052; p = .024) and retransplantation (HR = 14.393; p = .009) were predictors for dnDSA-II (AUC = 0.801; 0.622-0.981). HLA-II EpvMM (HR = 1.105; p = .028; AUC = 0.856) showed to be a superior predictor of dnDSA-II, when compared to AgMM (HR = 1.740; p = .113; AUC = 0.783), when adjusted for these clinical variables. Graft survival was significantly lower within dnDSA-II patient group (36% versus 88%, p < .001). HLA molecular mismatch analysis is extremely important to minimize risk for HLA-II dnDSA development improving outcome and increasing chance of retransplant lowering allosensitization.

  • Noble J
  • Metzger A
  • Naciri Bennani H
  • Daligault M
  • Masson D
  • et al.
J Clin Med. 2021 Mar 23;10(6) doi: 10.3390/jcm10061316.

Nearly 18% of patients on a waiting list for kidney transplantation (KT) are highly sensitized, which make access to KT more difficult. We assessed the efficacy and tolerance of different techniques (plasma exchanges [PE], double-filtration plasmapheresis [DFPP], and immunoadsorption [IA]) to remove donor specific antibodies (DSA) in the setting of HLA-incompatible (HLAi) KT. All patients that underwent apheresis for HLAi KT within a single center were included. Intra-session and inter-session Mean Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) decrease in DSA, clinical and biological tolerances were assessed. A total of 881 sessions were performed for 45 patients: 107 DFPP, 54 PE, 720 IA. The procedures led to HLAi KT in 39 patients (87%) after 29 (15-51) days. A higher volume of treated plasma was associated with a greater decrease of inter-session class I and II DSA (p = 0.04, p = 0.02). IA, PE, and a lower maximal DSA MFI were associated with a greater decrease in intra-session class II DSA (p < 0.01). Safety was good: severe adverse events occurred in 17 sessions (1.9%), more frequently with DFPP (6.5%) p < 0.01. Hypotension occurred in 154 sessions (17.5%), more frequently with DFPP (p < 0.01). Apheresis is well tolerated (IA and PE > DFPP) and effective at removing HLA antibodies and allows HLAi KT for sensitized patients.

  • Manook M
  • Johnson R
  • Robb M
  • Burnapp L
  • Fuggle SV
  • et al.
Transpl Int. 2021 Jan;34(1):153-162 doi: 10.1111/tri.13776.

Antibody incompatibility is a barrier to living kidney transplantation; antibody incompatible transplantation (AIT) is an accepted treatment modality, albeit higher risk. This study aims to determine changes to clinical decision making and access to AIT in the UK. An electronic survey was sent to all UK renal transplant centres (n = 24), in 2014, and again in 2018. Questions focused on entry & duration in the UKLKSS for HLA and ABO-incompatible pairs, Can and provision of direct AIT transplantation within those centres. Between 2014 & 2018, the duration recommended for patients in the UKLKSS increased. In 2014, 34.8% of centres reported leaving HLA-i pairs in the UKLKSS indefinitely, or reviewing on a case by case basis, by 2018 this increased to 61%. Centres offering direct HLA-i transplantation reduced from 58% to 37%. For low titre (1:8) ABO-i recipients, 66% of centres recommended at least 9 months (3 matching runs) in the UKLKSS scheme in 2018, compared to 47% in 2014, 50% fewer units consider direct ABO-i transplantation for unsuccessful pairs with high ABO titres (>1:512). Over time, clinicians appear to be facilitating more conservative management of AIT patients, potentially limiting access to living donor transplantation.

  • Mohammadhassanzadeh H
  • Oualkacha K
  • Zhang W
  • Klement W
  • Bourdiec A
  • et al.
Kidney Int Rep. 2021 Mar 30;6(6):1567-1579 doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2021.03.877.

To mitigate risks related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) incompatibility, we assessed whether certain structurally defined HLA targets present in donors but absent from recipients, known as eplet mismatches (EMM), are associated with death-censored graft failure (DCGF).


We studied a cohort of 118,313 American 0% panel reactive antibodies (PRA) first kidney transplant recipients (2000 to 2015) from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Imputed allele-level donor and recipient HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 genotypes were converted to the repertoire of EMM. We fit survival models for each EMM with significance thresholds corrected for false discovery rate and validated those in an independent PRA > 0% cohort. We conducted network-based analyses to model relationships among EMM and developed models to select the subset of EMM most predictive of DCGF.


Of 412 EMM observed, 119 class I and 118 class II EMM were associated with DCGF. Network analysis showed that although 210 eplets formed profiles of 2 to 12 simultaneously occurring EMMs, 202 were singleton EMMs that were not involved in any profile. A variable selection procedure identified 55 single HLA class I and II EMMs in 70% of the dataset; of those, 15 EMMs (9 singleton and 6 involved in profiles) were predictive of DCGF in the remaining dataset.


Our analysis distinguished increasingly smaller subsets of EMMs associated with increased risk of DCGF. Validation of these EMMs as important predictors of transplant outcomes (in contrast to acceptable EMMs) in datasets with measured allele-level genotypes will support their role as immunodominant EMMs worthy of consideration in organ allocation schemes.

  • Pandey P
  • Setya D
  • Sinha VK
  • Devra AK
  • Pande A
  • et al.
Indian J Nephrol. 2021 May-Jun;31(3):324-326 doi: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_392_19.
  • Jackson KR
  • Long J
  • Motter J
  • Bowring MG
  • Chen J
  • et al.
Transplantation. 2021 Feb 1;105(2):436-442 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003254.

Desensitization protocols for HLA-incompatible living donor kidney transplantation (ILDKT) vary across centers. The impact of these, as well as other practice variations, on ILDKT outcomes remains unknown.


We sought to quantify center-level variation in mortality and graft loss following ILDKT using a 25-center cohort of 1358 ILDKT recipients with linkage to Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients for accurate outcome ascertainment. We used multilevel Cox regression with shared frailty to determine the variation in post-ILDKT outcomes attributable to between-center differences and to identify any center-level characteristics associated with improved post-ILDKT outcomes.


After adjusting for patient-level characteristics, only 6 centers (24%) had lower mortality and 1 (4%) had higher mortality than average. Similarly, only 5 centers (20%) had higher graft loss and 2 had lower graft loss than average. Only 4.7% of the differences in mortality (P < 0.01) and 4.4% of the differences in graft loss (P < 0.01) were attributable to between-center variation. These translated to a median hazard ratio of 1.36 for mortality and 1.34 of graft loss for similar candidates at different centers. Post-ILDKT outcomes were not associated with the following center-level characteristics: ILDKT volume and transplanting a higher proportion of highly sensitized, prior transplant, preemptive, or minority candidates.


Unlike most aspects of transplantation in which center-level variation and volume impact outcomes, we did not find substantial evidence for this in ILDKT. Our findings support the continued practice of ILDKT across these diverse centers.

  • Meneghini M
  • Crespo E
  • Niemann M
  • Torija A
  • Lloberas N
  • et al.
Front Immunol. 2021 Mar 10;11:623276 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.623276.

Donor/recipient molecular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch predicts primary B-cell alloimmune activation, yet the impact on de novo donor-specific T-cell alloimmunity (dnDST) remains undetermined. The hypothesis of our study is that donor/recipient HLA mismatches assessed at the molecular level may also influence a higher susceptibility to the development of posttransplant primary T-cell alloimmunity. In this prospective observational study, 169 consecutive kidney transplant recipients without preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and with high resolution donor/recipient HLA typing were evaluated for HLA molecular mismatch scores using different informatic algorithms [amino acid mismatch, eplet MM, and Predicted Indirectly Recognizable HLA Epitopes (PIRCHE-II)]. Primary donor-specific alloimmune activation over the first 2 years posttransplantation was assessed by means of both dnDSA and dnDST using single antigen bead (SAB) and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays, respectively. Also, the predominant alloantigen presenting pathway priming DST alloimmunity and the contribution of main alloreactive T-cell subsets were further characterized in vitro. Pretransplantation, 78/169 (46%) were DST+ whereas 91/169 (54%) DST-. At 2 years, 54/169 (32%) patients showed detectable DST responses: 23/54 (42%) dnDST and 31/54 (57%) persistently positive (persistDST+). 24/169 (14%) patients developed dnDSA. A strong correlation was observed between the three distinct molecular mismatch scores and they all accurately predicted dnDSA formation, in particular at the DQ locus. Likewise, HLA molecular incompatibility predicted the advent of dnDST, especially when assessed by PIRCHE-II score (OR 1.014 95% CI 1.001-1.03, p=0.04). While pretransplant DST predicted the development of posttransplant BPAR (OR 5.18, 95% CI=1.64-16.34, p=0.005) and particularly T cell mediated rejection (OR 5.33, 95% CI=1.45-19.66, p=0.012), patients developing dnDST were at significantly higher risk of subsequent dnDSA formation (HR 2.64, 95% CI=1.08-6.45, p=0.03). In vitro experiments showed that unlike preformed DST that is predominantly primed by CD8+ direct pathway T cells, posttransplant DST may also be activated by the indirect pathway of alloantigen presentation, and predominantly driven by CD4+ alloreactive T cells in an important proportion of patients. De novo donor-specific cellular alloreactivity seems to precede subsequent humoral alloimmune activation and is influenced by a poor donor/recipient HLA molecular matching.

  • Pandey P
  • Setya D
  • Devra AK
  • Sinha VK
  • Bhatt AP
  • et al.
Transfus Apher Sci. 2021 Feb;60(1):102954 doi: 10.1016/j.transci.2020.102954.

Preconditioning using different protocols has been tested to prevent antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) individually for ABO and HLA incompatibility. However, simultaneous presence of both barriers is still less explored. The aim of this study was to report outcomes of institutional desensitization protocol in renal transplant recipients with simultaneous ABO and HLA incompatibility.


This was a retrospective study conducted from October 2015 to December 2018. All patients with a clinical diagnosis of dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD), who were prospective coexistent HLA and ABO incompatible renal transplant recipients were included in the study. Patients were followed up and graft function and patient survival was assessed at 1 y from the date of transplant.


Median and mode baseline anti-A titers were 64, while median and mode baseline anti-B titers were 256. All recipients were discharged by tenth postoperative day. None of the patients had any bleeding complications. Post transplant infection rate was found to be 20 %. A total of 54 therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) procedures were performed before transplant and 8 were performed after transplant. Graft survival and patient survival was 100 % at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Range and mean follow-up period was 15-42 months and 23 months respectively. Mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 1 y using the CKD-EPI equation was 85.25 ± 13.76 mL/min. Biopsy proven ABMR was observed in one case only which was managed with TPE and immunosuppression.


Simultaneous ABO and HLA incompatibility in renal transplant recipients can be managed successfully with adequate preconditioning and careful monitoring.

  • Unterrainer C
  • Döhler B
  • Niemann M
  • Lachmann N
  • Süsal C
Front Immunol. 2021 Feb 26;12:631246 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.631246.

We analyzed in a cohort of 68,606 first deceased donor kidney transplantations reported to the Collaborative Transplant Study whether an epitope-based matching of donor-recipient pairs using the Predicted Indirectly ReCognizable HLA Epitopes algorithm (PIRCHE-II) is superior to currently applied HLA antigen matching. PIRCHE-II scores were calculated based on split antigen HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 typing and adjusted to the 0-6 range of HLA mismatches. PIRCHE-II scores correlated strongly with the number of HLA mismatches (Spearman ρ = 0.65, P < 0.001). In multivariable analyses both parameters were found to be significant predictors of 5-year death-censored graft loss with high prognostic power [hazard ratio (HR) per adjusted PIRCHE-II score = 1.102, per HLA mismatch = 1.095; z-value PIRCHE-II: 9.8, HLA: 11.2; P < 0.001 for both]. When PIRCHE-II scores and HLA mismatches were analyzed simultaneously, their predictive power decreased but remained significant (PIRCHE-II: P = 0.002; HLA: P < 0.001). Influence of PIRCHE-II was especially strong in presensitized and influence of HLA mismatches in non-sensitized recipients. If the level of HLA-incompatibility was low (0-3 mismatches), PIRCHE-II scores showed a low impact on graft survival (HR = 1.031) and PIRCHE-II matching did not have additional significant benefit (P = 0.10). However, if the level of HLA-incompatibility was high (4-6 mismatches), PIRCHE-II improved the positive impact of matching compared to applying the traditional HLA matching alone (HR = 1.097, P = 0.005). Our results suggest that the PIRCHE-II score is useful and can be included into kidney allocation algorithms in addition to HLA matching; however, at the resolution level of HLA typing that is currently used for allocation it cannot fully replace traditional HLA matching.